Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):E1473-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1205991109. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Cutaneous β-human papillomavirus E6 proteins bind Mastermind-like coactivators and repress Notch signaling.

Author information

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


The Notch signaling pathway is a key determinant in keratinocyte differentiation and growth cycle arrest, and has been reported to have a tumor suppressor function in skin. The papillomavirus life cycle is intricately linked to the differentiation status of keratinocytes. Papillomaviruses are associated with benign proliferative epithelial lesions in their respective hosts. Although human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with genital tract lesions have been extensively studied, studies of the cutaneous HPVs are more limited. In particular, it is well established that the E6 proteins of high-risk HPVs of the α-genus such as HPV16 and HPV18 mediate the degradation of p53 by its association with the ubiquitin ligase E6AP. In contrast, less is known about the cellular activities of the cutaneous HPVs of the β-genus. By using an unbiased proteomic approach, we identify MAML1 and other members of the Notch transcription complex as high-confidence cellular interacting proteins of E6 proteins of the β-genus HPVs and of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with cutaneous fibropapillomas. We show that bovine papillomavirus type 1 and β-HPV E6 repress Notch transcriptional activation, and that this repression is dependent on an interaction with MAML1. Finally, we show that the expression levels of endogenous Notch target genes are repressed by β-HPV E6 proteins. These findings elucidate a mechanism of viral antagonism of Notch signaling, and suggest that Notch signaling is an important epithelial cell pathway target for the β-HPVs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center