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Immunol Res. 2012 Dec;54(1-3):121-32. doi: 10.1007/s12026-012-8333-3.

The role of chemokines in the pathogenesis of neurotropic flaviviruses.

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Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1124, New York, NY 10029, USA.


Neurotropic flaviviruses are important emerging and reemerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and other vertebrates worldwide. Upon entry and infection of the CNS, these viruses can induce a rapid inflammatory response characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes into the brain parenchyma. Chemokines and their receptors are involved in coordinating complex leukocyte trafficking patterns that regulate viral pathogenesis in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the current literature on the role of chemokines in regulating the pathogenesis of West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis virus infections in mouse models and humans. Understanding how viral infections trigger chemokines, the key cellular events that occur during the infection process, as well as the immunopathogenic role of these cells, are critical areas of research that may ultimately guide a much needed effort toward developing specific immunomodulators and/or antiviral therapeutics.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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