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Eukaryot Cell. 2012 Jun;11(6):708-17. doi: 10.1128/EC.00044-12. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

The RAM network in pathogenic fungi.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology/Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA.


The regulation of Ace2 and morphogenesis (RAM) network is a protein kinase signaling pathway conserved among eukaryotes from yeasts to humans. Among fungi, the RAM network has been most extensively studied in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been shown to regulate a range of cellular processes, including daughter cell-specific gene expression, cell cycle regulation, cell separation, mating, polarized growth, maintenance of cell wall integrity, and stress signaling. Increasing numbers of recent studies on the role of the RAM network in pathogenic fungal species have revealed that this network also plays an important role in the biology and pathogenesis of these organisms. In addition to providing a brief overview of the RAM network in S. cerevisiae, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of RAM network function in the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Pneumocystis spp.

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