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Neurocrit Care. 2013 Aug;19(1):103-10. doi: 10.1007/s12028-012-9713-1.

Safety of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) thrombolysis based on CT localization of external ventricular drain (EVD) fenestrations and analysis of EVD tract hemorrhage.

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1
Department of Pharmacy, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The purpose of the study is to review the CT findings associated with ventriculostomy placement in regards to the safety of an EVD plus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for IVH.

METHODS:

A retrospective review was conducted for patients receiving intraventricular rt-PA for IVH from January 2004 to September 2009. Safety was assessed by the presence of EVD tract hemorrhage by CT at baseline after EVD placement, worsening hemorrhage after rt-PA, and CSF infection. IVH volumetrics were assessed by the Le Roux score and outcomes by Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale.

RESULTS:

Twenty-seven patients received rt-PA for IVH. Median dose was 2 mg (range 0.3-8) and a median of two doses (range 1-17) were given. Worsening EVD catheter tract hemorrhage after rt-PA was 46.7 %, with a significantly higher incidence of worsening tract hemorrhage seen with incorrectly placed EVDs (p = 0.04). IVH hematoma burden decreased by a median Le Roux score of 10 (range 3-16) prior to rt-PA to 4 (range 0-16) after rt-PA. There were no central nervous system bacterial infections.

CONCLUSION:

Intraventricular rt-PA appears to be relatively safe especially when all EVD fenestrations are within the ventricle and reduces IVH burden similar to other studies. We describe a CT-based EVD tract hemorrhage grading scale to evaluate EVD tract hemorrhage before and after thrombolysis, and a bone-window technique to evaluate EVD fenestrations prior to IVH thrombolysis. Further research is needed evaluating these imaging techniques in regard to intraventricular thrombolytic safety and EVD tract hemorrhage.

PMID:
22544476
PMCID:
PMC3785325
DOI:
10.1007/s12028-012-9713-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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