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Antivir Ther. 2012;17(5):893-903. doi: 10.3851/IMP2103. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Responses of solid organ transplant recipients to the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine.

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Center for Vaccinology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.



Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are a priority group for influenza vaccination and strategies enhancing immunogenicity are needed.


We determined adverse reactions, changes in biomarkers of graft function and immune responses to two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A/09/H1N1 vaccine in 216 SOT recipients and in 138 controls after one dose. Antibody responses were measured by haemagglutination inhibition and confirmed by microneutralization. We calculated geometric mean titres (GMT) and seroprotection rates (GMT≄40).


Adverse reactions were fewer than in controls and graft function remained unaffected. Seroprotection was achieved by only 70.3% of SOT recipients, with significant differences between groups (lung 43.6%, heart 72.0%, kidney 83.3%, liver 83.3% and pancreas 85%), compared to 87% of controls (P<0.001). The weakest responses (seroprotection 43.5%) were elicited in lung transplant recipients. GMT remained threefold lower (115 versus 340) in SOT recipients than controls. Multivariate analyses identified increasing age, type of transplant and increasing blood levels of mycophenolate as independently associated to weaker responses. In contrast, even high blood levels of calcineurin inhibitors remained without significant influence on vaccine responses.


The squalene-based adjuvanted A/09/H1N1 vaccine was safe in SOT recipients. However, even two doses of this adjuvanted influenza vaccine did not provide adequate protection for lung transplant recipients and those with high mycophenolate blood levels. Additional prophylactic measures should, therefore, be considered for these high-risk groups.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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