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Medicine (Baltimore). 2012 May;91(3):123-30. doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e31825592a7.

Infections of cardiac implantable electronic devices: a retrospective multicenter observational study.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. GMViola@mdanderson.org

Abstract

Infections of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) can cause significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden. Although staphylococcal organisms account for most infections of these cardiac devices, approximately 20% of all CIED-related infections are caused by non-Staphylococcus species. Herein we describe and compare the demographics, clinical presentation, and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus and non-staphylococcal infections of CIED.We performed a retrospective, multicenter, observational study of patients from 4 academic hospitals in Houston between 2002 and 2009. All 80 identified non-staphylococcal CIED-related infections were matched, at a 1:1 ratio, to S. aureus infections.Although the demographics and general comorbidities in the 2 study groups were relatively similar, the S. aureus group had a higher proportion of patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and end-stage renal disease. Additionally, 81% of S. aureus compared with only 48.5% of the non-staphylococcal CIED-related infections were health care-associated (p < 0.001). Furthermore, when compared to non-staphylococcal infections, the S. aureus group had more indwelling intravascular foreign material (p < 0.001), more rapid clinical progression (p < 0.001), and overall worse clinical presentation (p < 0.001). However, after stratifying by clinical presentation, the mortality rates in the 2 groups were similar (p = 0.45).Since approximately one-fifth of all CIED-related infections are caused by non-staphylococcal organisms, and untimely antibiotic treatment can result in serious complications, it may be prudent to broaden empiric antimicrobial therapy to cover both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, until the causative organism is identified.

PMID:
22543626
DOI:
10.1097/MD.0b013e31825592a7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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