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Annu Rev Neurosci. 2012;35:25-47. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-062111-150400. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Cellular pathways of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

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Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


Human voluntary movement is controlled by the pyramidal motor system, a long CNS pathway comprising corticospinal and lower motor neurons. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a large, genetically diverse group of inherited neurologic disorders characterized by a length-dependent distal axonopathy of the corticospinal tracts, resulting in lower limb spasticity and weakness. A range of studies are converging on alterations in the shaping of organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as intracellular membrane trafficking and distribution as primary defects underlying the HSPs, with clear relevance for other long axonopathies affecting peripheral nerves and lower motor neurons.

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