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J Dent Res. 2012 Jul;91(7):666-70. doi: 10.1177/0022034512446342. Epub 2012 Apr 25.

Association among vitamin D, oral candidiasis, and calprotectinemia in HIV.

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Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 801 S. Paulina, M/C 838, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


Vitamin D deficiency is associated with negative health outcomes, including infections. Vitamin D modulates inflammation and down-regulates the expression of calprotectin, a molecule which influences neutrophil functions and which has been linked to oral candidiasis (OC), the most prevalent oral lesion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We hypothesized a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and OC, and that this effect was partially modulated by calprotectinemia. Plasma calprotectin and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were measured in stored samples from 84 HIV-seropositive Chicago women enrolled in the Oral Substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). OC and vitamin D deficiency were diagnosed in, respectively, 14 (16.7%) and 46 (54.8%) of those studied. Vitamin D deficiency was positively associated with OC (p = 0.011) and with higher calprotectinemia (p = 0.019) in univariate analysis. After adjustment for CD4, HIV viral load, HIV treatment, and tobacco and heroin/methadone use, vitamin D deficiency remained a significant predictor of OC (OR 5.66; 95% confidence interval 1.01-31.71). This association weakened after adjustment for calprotectinemia, supporting a role for calprotectinemia as a moderator of this effect. These findings support studies to examine the effect of vitamin D status on calprotectinemia, neutrophil functions, and opportunistic mucosal infections in HIV.

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