Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e29656. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029656. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

Author information

Livingstone General Hospital, Livingstone, Zambia.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2012;7(5): doi/10.1371/annotation/808bf191-73bc-4b7f-a0c3-7bbf18833a21.



Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people.


Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074), 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983), 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342), 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early infant diagnosis. The hospital's bolstered antiretroviral supply chain, package of on-site HIV services, and follow-up care for children and families improved the continuum of service uptake.


The clinical impact and operational experience emphasizes that institutional PITC is a feasible strategy for increasing access to paediatric HIV care, particularly in generalized epidemic settings.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center