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Immune Netw. 2012 Feb;12(1):1-7. doi: 10.4110/in.2012.12.1.1. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

Molecular Mechanisms Governing IL-24 Gene Expression.

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School of Life Sciences and Immune Synapse Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712, Korea.


Interleukin-24 (IL-24) belongs to the IL-10 family of cytokines and is well known for its tumor suppressor activity. This cytokine is released by both immune and nonimmune cells and acts on non-hematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. Apart from its ubiquitous tumor suppressor function, IL-24 is also known to be involved in the immunopathology of autoimmune diseases like psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Although the cellular sources and functions of IL-24 are being increasingly investigated, the molecular mechanisms of IL-24 gene expression at the levels of signal transduction, epigenetics and transcription factor binding are still unclear. Understanding the specific molecular events that regulate the production of IL-24 will help to answer the remaining questions that are important for the design of new strategies of immune intervention involving IL-24. Herein, we briefly review the signaling pathways and transcription factors that facilitate, induce, or repress production of this cytokine along with the cellular sources and functions of IL-24.


Chromatin remodeling; Epigenetics; Gene regulation; IL-24; Transcription factor

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