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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Apr;22(4):571-3.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate, prevents cells from apoptosis by lowering S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

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Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806, Korea.


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G-3-P), the substrate of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is a key intermediate in several metabolic pathways. Recently, we reported that G-3-P directly inhibits caspase-3 activity in a reversible noncompetitive mode, suggesting the intracellular G-3-P level as a cell fate decision factor. It has been known that apoptotic stimuli induce the generation of NO, and NO S-nitrosylates GAPDH at the catalytic cysteine residue, which confers GAPDH the ability to bind to Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The GAPDH-Siah-1 complex is translocated into the nucleus and subsequently triggers the apoptotic process. Here, we clearly showed that intracellular G-3-P protects GAPDH from S-nitrosylation at above a certain level, and consequently maintains the cell survival. In case G-3-P drops below a certain level as a result of exposure to specific stimuli, G-3-P cannot inhibit S-nitrosylation of GAPDH anymore, and consequently GAPDH translocates with Siah-1 into the nucleus. Based on these results, we suggest that G-3-P functions as a molecule switch between cell survival and apoptosis by regulating S-nitrosylation of GAPDH.

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