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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 Nov;126(5):377-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2012.01870.x. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Association between thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and state and trait factors of depression.

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Department of Endocrinology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands.



The aim of this study was to investigate whether thyroid function and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are associated with depression, when using both state and trait parameters of depression.


In 1125 participants of the Nijmegen Biomedical Study, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and TPOAb were measured twice. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a self-reported lifetime diagnosis of depression, and the neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSS) were used to evaluate the presence of state and trait features of depression.


We found no association between TSH and FT4 levels and BDI score, current depression, lifetime diagnosis of depression, and EPQ-RSS neuroticism score. Subjects with TPOAb had higher EPQ-RSS neuroticism scores in comparison with subjects without TPOAb, mean score 4.1 vs. 3.2 (regression coefficient 0.70; 95% CI 0.1-1.3; P-value 0.02 after adjustment for confounders). The prevalence of a lifetime diagnosis of depression was higher in subjects with positive TPOAb in comparison with participants without TPOAb: 24.2% vs. 16.7% (relative risk 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-2.1; P-value 0.04 after adjustment for confounders).


Thyroid peroxidase antibodies are positively associated with trait markers of depression. The presence of TPOAb may be a vulnerability marker for depression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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