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Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jul 1;18(13):3524-31. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0489. Epub 2012 Apr 23.

Novel aspects of mevalonate pathway inhibitors as antitumor agents.

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1
Cell Therapy Unit, Department of Urology, Innsbruck Medical University and K1 Center Oncotyrol, Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine, Innsbruck, Austria. martin.thurnher@i-med.ac.at

Abstract

The mevalonate pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis and protein prenylation has been implicated in various aspects of tumor development and progression. Certain classes of drugs, such as statins and bisphosphonates, inhibit mevalonate metabolism and therefore have also been tested as antitumor agents. This concept is strongly supported by the recent finding that mutant p53, which is present in more than half of all human cancers, can significantly upregulate mevalonate metabolism and protein prenylation in carcinoma cells. The first evidence that mevalonate pathway inhibitors may have the potential to reverse the malignant phenotype has already been obtained. Moreover, recently discovered immunomodulatory properties of statins and bisphosphonates may also contribute to their known anticancer effects. Drug-induced inhibition of protein prenylation may induce sequential cellular stress responses, including the unfolded protein response and autophagy, that eventually translate into inflammasome-dependent and caspase-1-mediated activation of innate immunity. This review focuses on these novel capabilities of mevalonate pathway inhibitors to beneficially affect tumor biology and contribute to tumor immune surveillance.

PMID:
22529099
DOI:
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0489
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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