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Purinergic Signal. 2012 Sep;8(3):343-57. doi: 10.1007/s11302-012-9305-8. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

ATP synthesis and storage.

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Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Inflammation (ICSI), Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Borsari, 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy.


Since 1929, when it was discovered that ATP is a substrate for muscle contraction, the knowledge about this purine nucleotide has been greatly expanded. Many aspects of cell metabolism revolve around ATP production and consumption. It is important to understand the concepts of glucose and oxygen consumption in aerobic and anaerobic life and to link bioenergetics with the vast amount of reactions occurring within cells. ATP is universally seen as the energy exchange factor that connects anabolism and catabolism but also fuels processes such as motile contraction, phosphorylations, and active transport. It is also a signalling molecule in the purinergic signalling mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss all the main mechanisms of ATP production linked to ADP phosphorylation as well the regulation of these mechanisms during stress conditions and in connection with calcium signalling events. Recent advances regarding ATP storage and its special significance for purinergic signalling will also be reviewed.

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