Send to

Choose Destination
Methods Mol Biol. 2012;865:147-62. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-621-0_9.

Influenza virus surveillance, vaccine strain selection, and manufacture.

Author information

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, MA, USA.


As outlined in other chapters, the influenza virus, existing laboratory diagnostic abilities, and disease epidemiology have several peculiarities that impact on the timing and processes for the annual production of influenza vaccines. The chapter provides an overview on the key biological and other factors that influence vaccine production. They are the reason for an "annual circle race" beginning with global influenza surveillance during the influenza season in a given year to the eventual supply of vaccines 12 months later in time before the next seasonal outbreak and so on. As influenza vaccines are needed for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere outbreaks in fall and spring, respectively, global surveillance and vaccine production has become a year round business. Its highlights are the WHO recommendations on vaccine strains in February and September and the eventual delivery of vaccine doses in time before the coming influenza season. In between continues vaccine strain and epidemiological surveillance, preparation of new high growth reassortments, vaccine seed strain preparation and development of standardizing reagents, vaccine bulk production, fill-finishing and vaccine release, and in some regions, clinical trials for regulatory approval.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center