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Metab Brain Dis. 2012 Jun;27(2):121-9. doi: 10.1007/s11011-012-9302-1. Epub 2012 Apr 14.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: current knowledge on its pathophysiological mechanisms.

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1
Department of Biochemical Genetics, National Center for Medical Genetics, Campus ICBP Victoria de GirĂ³n, Playa, La Habana, Cuba. derbisch@cngen.sld.cu

Abstract

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is one of the most frequent lysosomal storage diseases. It has a high morbidity and mortality, causing in many cases severe neurological and somatic damage in the first years of life. Although the clinical phenotypes have been described for decades, and the enzymatic deficiency and many of the mutations that cause this disease are well known, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to its development are not completely understood. In this review we describe and discuss the different pathogenic mechanisms currently proposed for this disease regarding its neurological damage. Deficiency in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, as well as its primary accumulation, may disrupt a variety of physiological and biochemical processes: the intracellular and extracellular homeostasis of these macromolecules, the pathways related to gangliosides metabolism, mechanisms related to the activation of inflammation, receptor-mediated signaling, oxidative stress and permeability of the lysosomal membrane, as well as alterations in intracellular ionic homeostasis and the endosomal pathway. Many of the pathogenic mechanisms proposed for mucopolysaccharidosis type I are also present in other lysosomal storage diseases with neurological implications. Results from the use of methods that allow the analysis of multiple genes and proteins, in both patients and animal models, will shed light on the role of each of these mechanisms and their combination in the development of different phenotypes due to the same deficiency.

PMID:
22527994
DOI:
10.1007/s11011-012-9302-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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