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Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012 Aug;70(2):331-8. doi: 10.1007/s00280-012-1826-x. Epub 2012 Apr 11.

Metronomic oral combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide: a phase II study in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

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Breast Center, Mita Hospital, International University of Health and Welfare, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8329, Japan.



Metronomic combination chemotherapy with the oral fluoropyrimidine doxifluridine/5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5 -DFUR) and oral cyclophosphamide (C) showed promising efficacy in a single-arm study. The oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine was designed to deliver 5-fluorouracil preferentially to tumors, potentially improving efficacy over doxifluridine. We conducted a phase II multicenter study to evaluate an all-oral XC combination in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC).


Patients received capecitabine 828 mg/m(2) twice daily with cyclophosphamide 33 mg/m(2) twice daily, days 1-14 every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety.


Between May 2007 and April 2009, 51 patients were enrolled and 45 were included in the efficacy analysis. The median follow-up was 18.1 months. ORR was 44.4% and stable disease (≥24 weeks) was achieved in 13.4%, resulting in a 57.8% clinical benefit response rate. Median PFS was 12.3 months (95% confidence interval: 8.9-18.9 months). Median PFS was 10.7 months in triple-negative disease and 13.2 months in estrogen-receptor positive, HER2-negative disease. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 86 and 71%, respectively. Median OS has not been reached. Grade 3 adverse events comprised leukopenia (26%), neutropenia (16%), and decreased hemoglobin (2%). There was no grade 3 hand-foot syndrome.


Oral XC is an effective first- or second-line therapy for MBC, demonstrating high activity in both luminal A and triple-negative disease with few severe side effects. This metronomic oral combination chemotherapy could be beneficial for the treatment of HER2-negative MBC.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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