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Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2012 Aug;35(4):725-40. doi: 10.1007/s00270-012-0387-z. Epub 2012 Apr 21.

The amplatzer vascular plug: a review of the device and its clinical applications.

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Section of Interventional Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH 44195, USA.


The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is an established embolic device that can be an excellent alternative to coils or detachable balloons to embolize medium to large vessels with high flow. The device is easy to use and can be precisely deployed in the target vessel with high resistance to migration and a low recanalization rate. The technical success of this device is high, indications for use are expanding, and no absolute contraindications have been reported. Since its introduction, the AVP has grown from a single device to a group of 4 models (AVP, AVP II, AVP III, and AVP 4). Each model has a unique design and features that fit different vascular anatomies, hemodynamic situations, and clinical scenarios. Therefore, the new models cannot simply be treated as replacements for older ones. Unpredictable occlusion time remains a major shortcoming for the new models of the AVP. Large vessel size, high flow status, and coagulopathy can prolong the occlusion time, which can offset the cost benefit, reduced procedure time, and reduced radiation dose typically seen with use of the AVP alone. Coils or multiple AVPs can be used to expedite the occlusion process, and large Gelfoam particles also can be used as an adjunct to achieve rapid and reliable occlusion with minimal cost.

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