Send to

Choose Destination
ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2012;2012:691486. doi: 10.5402/2012/691486. Epub 2012 Mar 4.

Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency and Inadequacy among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

Author information

Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.



To examine the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy among US women of childbearing age.


Data from 1,814 female participants (20-44 y) in the 2003-2006 NHANES were analyzed to estimate the age-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <12.0 ng/mL) and inadequacy (defined as 25(OH)D: 12.0-<20.0 ng/mL).


The age-adjusted prevalence was 11.1% (95% CI: 8.8-14.0%) for vitamin D deficiency and 25.7% (95% CI: 22.3-29.5%) for vitamin D inadequacy. Race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white and obesity were associated with increased risks, whereas dietary supplement use, milk consumption of ≥1 time/day, and potential sunlight exposure during May-October were associated with decreased risks for both vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy (P < 0.05). Current smoking and having histories of diabetes and cardiovascular disease were also associated with an increased risk for vitamin D deficiency (P < 0.05).


Among women of childbearing age, periconceptional intervention programs may focus on multiple risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy to ultimately improve their vitamin D nutrition.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Hindawi Limited Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center