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J Investig Clin Dent. 2012 May;3(2):135-41. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-1626.2011.00105.x. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Association between cigarette smoking and the intraoral distribution of periodontal disease in Thai men over 50 years of age.

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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.



This study aimed to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on periodontal conditions in specific tooth regions of older Thai men.


There were 272 current smokers, 714 former smokers, and 477 non-smokers enrolled in the present study. Differences between groups in the mean probing depth or attachment loss were compared using ancova. The relationship between smoking exposure or cessation duration and periodontal conditions was examined using linear trend analysis.


Smokers had deeper pockets and attachment loss than non-smokers. The greatest differences between smokers and non-smokers were observed in the maxillary posterior palatal region, where current smokers had 0.88 mm greater attachment loss than non-smokers, compared to 0.36-0.60 mm observed in other tooth regions. Among the current smokers, there was a trend towards an increase in attachment loss with increasing smoking exposure in the maxillary posterior regions. However, it was not statistically significant. Among the former smokers, a better periodontal condition was observed, depending on the length of time since smoking cessation; this was most pronounced in the maxillary posterior palatal region.


The palatal site of maxillary posterior teeth was the area most affected by cigarette smoke. The results suggest a possible local effect of smoking in addition to its systemic effects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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