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Vaccine. 2012 Jun 6;30(26):3857-61. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.010. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid of Costa Rican children following introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into a limited population.

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  • 1Instituto de Atención Pediátrica, San José, Costa Rica.



The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was introduced in high risk children and into the private market in Costa Rica in 2004 (<5% annual birth cohort). The aim of this study was to compare the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype (ST) distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns and potential coverage before and after partial introduction of PCV-7.


A comparison between the S. pneumoniae isolates obtained and serotyped from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of Costa Rican children with otitis media between years 1999 and 2003 (before PCV-7 usage) and those isolates obtained from 2004 to 2008.


A total of 145 and 218 MEF S. pneumoniae were serotyped between years 1999 and 2003 and 2004 and 2008, respectively. Considering a 19F outbreak observed between years 1999 and 2003, the following statistically significant changes in serotype distribution were detected between 1999 and 2003 and 2004 and 2008: ST 3: 4.8-12.8% (P=0.01); ST 11A: 0-4.1% (P=0.01); ST 14: 3.5-21.1% (P<0.001) and ST 19F: 52.4-18.3% (P<0.05). Comparison of the two study periods demonstrated that during 2004 and 2008 a statistically significant decrease in penicillin non-susceptible serotypes (36.2-20.4% [P=0.003]) and a statistically significant increase in trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole resistant serotypes (54.9-68.5%, respectively [P=0.03]) was observed. Potential pneumococcal vaccines coverage between 1999 and 2003 and between 2004 and 2008 were: for PCV-7: 77.2-60.5%, respectively (P=0.001); for the 10-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-10): 78.6-61.4%, respectively (P=0.0008) and for the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13): 84.8-79.3%, respectively (P=0.2).


Changes in the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of MEF S. pneumoniae have been observed in Costa Rican children with OM. Because of the limited use of PCV-7 during the study period, these changes probably cannot be attributed to PCV-7 use. Between 2004 and 2008, PCV-13 offered the highest potential vaccine coverage.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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