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J Diabetes Complications. 2012 May-Jun;26(3):230-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.03.012. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Frequent insulin dosage adjustments based on glucose readings alone are sufficient for a safe and effective therapy.

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Hygieia, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA.



Frequent dosage adjustments are necessary to achieve effective insulin therapy. However, a controversy surrounds the pertinent clinical parameters required to make effective and safe insulin titrations. We hypothesize that glucose readings are sufficient to adjust insulin dosage provided that it is done on a weekly basis.


In a prospective pilot study, we recruited 14 subjects with suboptimally controlled insulin-treated Type-2 and Type-1 diabetes. Subjects were treated with basal-bolus insulin therapy that was titrated weekly for 12 weeks. Dosage adjustments were made by the study Endocrinologist by reviewing subjects' glucose readings, exclusively based on logsheets and contingent upon the approval of the on-site study team. To corroborate that the glucose readings were sufficient for making dosage adjustments, we used software to process only glucose readings and recommend insulin dosage adjustments. The recommendations made by the software were retrospectively compared to the ones made by the study Endocrinologist.


All N=568 recommendations were approved by the study team and in 99.3% of the cases the recommendations were clinically similar to the ones made by the software. No hazardous disagreements were found. The mean A1C improved from 9.8% (± 2.0) to 7.9% (± 1.3) (p=0.001) in 12 weeks and the weekly mean glucose progressively improved from 220.3 mg/dl (± 51.9) to 151.5 mg/dl (± 19.2) (p<0.0001). The frequency of minor hypoglycemia was 22.7 per patient-year in subjects with Type-2 diabetes and 42.7 in the subjects with Type-1 diabetes. No severe hypoglycemic events occurred.


Glucose readings are sufficient to adjust insulin therapy in a safe and effective manner, when adjustments are made on a weekly basis. Thus, dedicated software may help adjust insulin dosage between clinic visits.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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