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Curr Opin Immunol. 2012 Jun;24(3):310-5. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2012.03.008. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Adjuvants for human vaccines.

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Laboratory of Adjuvant & Antigen Research, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.


Rational selection of individual adjuvants can often be made on the basis of innate molecular interactions of the foreign molecules with pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors. For example, monophosphoryl lipid A, a family of endotoxic TLR4 agonist molecules from bacteria, has recently been formulated with liposomes, oil emulsions, or aluminum salts for several vaccines. Combinations of antigens and adjuvants with particulate lipid or oil components may reveal unique properties of immune potency or efficacy, but these can sometimes be exhibited differently in rodents when compared to nonhuman primates or humans. New adjuvants, formulations, microinjection devices, and skin delivery techniques for transcutaneous immunization demonstrate that adjuvant systems can include combinations of strategies and delivery mechanisms for uniquely formulated antigens and adjuvants.

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