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Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Oct;14(10):901-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2012.01613.x. Epub 2012 May 16.

Factors influencing initial choice of insulin therapy in a large international non-interventional study of people with type 2 diabetes.

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Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, UK.



To use baseline characteristics of the Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation in people with type 2 Diabetes on Insulin Therapy study population to identify factors that could explain the choice of insulin therapy when beginning insulin.


The source, non-interventional, longitudinal, long-term study involves 314 centres in 12 countries in five regions. People were enrolled having started any insulin regimen in the previous 12 months. To identify factors associated with the choice of insulin regimen, multivariable backward logistic regression was performed on eligible physician and participant explanatory variables.


Participants (N = 3031) had mean age 62 years, diabetes duration 11 years, body mass index 29.3 kg/m² and an HbA1c of 9.5%. Participants in Japan had less hypertension, smoked more and used fewer concomitant medications than those of other regions. Only physician location (rural or urban) influenced the choice of insulin in Japan. In the other four-regions-combined, physician location, specialty, sex and practice type influenced choice of insulin as did participant location, baseline HbA1c, use of glucose-lowering therapies and prior insulin secretagogue use.


Choice of initial insulin regimen was influenced by several physician and participant characteristics in Canada and Europe, but only by physician location in Japan.

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