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Toxicol Mech Methods. 2012 Sep;22(7):526-32. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2012.686536. Epub 2012 May 29.

Comparison and evaluation of urinary biomarkers for occupational exposure to spray adhesives containing 1-bromopropane.

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  • 1US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Applied Science and Technology, Biomonitoring and Health Assessment Branch , Robert A. Taft Laboratories, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226 , USA.


Three metabolites of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) were measured in urine samples collected from 30 workers exposed to 1-BP at two facilities making furniture seat cushions and evaluated for use as biomarkers of exposure. The mercapturic acid metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (AcPrCys), 3-bromopropionic acid (3-BPA), and bromide ion levels (Br(-)) were quantitated for this evaluation. The high exposure group consisted of 13 workers employed as adhesive sprayers who assembled foam cushions using 1-BP containing spray adhesives and the low exposure group consisted of 17 non-sprayers, who worked in various jobs without spraying adhesives. All workers' urine voids were collected over the same 48 h period at work, and at home before bedtime, and upon awakening. Urinary AcPrCys and Br(-) levels were elevated in the sprayers compared to that of non-sprayers. Following HPLC-MS/MS analysis of mercapturic acid metabolite levels, 50 urine samples having the highest levels of AcPrCys were analyzed for 3-BPA. No 3-BPA was detected in any of the samples. The data collected from this study demonstrate that AcPrCys and Br(-) are effective biomarkers of 1-BP exposure, but 3-BPA is not.

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