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Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 May;18(5):725-32. doi: 10.3201/eid1805.111738.

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype e and f disease, England and Wales.

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Health Protection Agency, London, UK.


Haemophilus influenzae infection causes serious invasive disease, but incidence of the most virulent serotype, Hib, has dropped since introduction of routine Hib vaccination. In England and Wales, the incidence of 2 other serotypes, Hie and Hif, is increasing; during 2001-2010, there was an 11.0% year-on-year increase in Hif and a 7.4% increase in Hie. In 2009-2010, Hif incidence was 0.090/100,000 persons and Hie incidence 0.030/100,000, with higher rates among infants and older adults. Hie had a more severe clinical course; although outcome at 6 months was comparable for the 2 serotypes, case-fatality rate within 7 days of diagnosis was higher for Hie, even after adjustment for age and comorbidities. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a single major circulating clone for both Hif (sequence type 124; 89/99 isolates, 90%) and Hie (sequence type 18; 21/33, 64%), but no association between type and clinical disease or outcome was found.

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