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Anim Sci J. 2012 Apr;83(4):291-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2011.00959.x. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Transgenic chimera quail production by microinjecting lentiviral vector into the blood vessel of the early embryo.

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State Key Laboratories for Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University Beijing Education Examinations Authority, China.


In the past, several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method has proven to be injection of lentiviral vector into the subgerminal cavity of the newly laid egg. In this study, we directly injected lentiviral vector into the blood vessel of HH13-15 quail embryos to produce transgenic chimeras. In the manipulated, hatched birds, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene driven by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter was extensively expressed. All tissues analyzed were GFP-positive, and gonad cells from some of the manipulated embryos expressed GFP. The semen genome of 21.4% of mature male birds was determined to be GFP-positive by PCR, indicating these male birds were transgenic chimeras.

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