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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Jul;67(7):1769-74. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks118. Epub 2012 Apr 18.

Prevalence of and risk factors associated with faecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural Thai communities.

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Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.



To determine the prevalence of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to study the risk factors associated with faecal carriage in asymptomatic rural Thai people.


In all, 417 stool samples were obtained from rural Thai people and screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) using MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 mg/L cefotaxime. Results were confirmed using cefotaxime and ceftazidime with and without clavulanic acid. The bla(CTX-M) genes were identified and genotyped using PCR with bacterial DNA samples. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate risk factors associated with the faecal carriage of CTX-M producers.


The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 65.7%. The CTX-M-9 group (60.6%) was dominant, followed by the CTX-M-1 group (38.7%). Most of the bacteria were Escherichia coli (85.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%). Of a total of 234 E. coli strains, 48.7% belonged to phylogenetic group A, 28.6% to group B1, 15.8% to group D and 6.8% to group B2. Most CTX-M producers were susceptible to carbapenems and amikacin, but resistant to tetracycline and gentamicin. In a multivariate logistic regression model, better education status (OR 2.245; 95% CI 1.297-3.884), history of hospitalization (OR 1.643; 95% CI 1.036-2.603) and the use of antibiotics within the last 3 months (OR 1.883; 95% CI 1.221-2.903) were independently associated with faecal carriage.


Faecal carriage of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among asymptomatic individuals in rural Thailand remains alarmingly high, and previous antibiotic use and a history of hospitalization may contribute to its dissemination.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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