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J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 10;30(20):2441-8. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.37.1286. Epub 2012 Apr 16.

Cladribine, but not fludarabine, added to daunorubicin and cytarabine during induction prolongs survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a multicenter, randomized phase III study.

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Comprehensive Cancer Center M. Curie-Sklodowska Memorial Institute, Branch Gliwice, Gliwice, Poland.



The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of a purine analog, cladribine or fludarabine, to the standard induction regimen affects the outcome of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).


A cohort of 652 untreated AML patients with median age 47 years (range, 17 to 60 years) were randomly assigned to receive one of three induction regimens: DA (daunorubicin plus cytarabine), DAC (DA plus cladribine), or DAF (DA plus fludarabine). Postremission treatment was the same for all arms.


Complete remission rate in the DAC arm was higher compared with the DA arm (67.5% v 56%; P = .01) as a consequence of reduced incidence of resistant disease (21% v 34%; P = .004). There was no significant difference in early outcome between the DAF and DA arms. The probability of overall survival was improved for the DAC arm (45% ± 4% at 3 years) compared with the DA arm (33% ± 4%; P = .02), and leukemia-free survival was comparable. Long-term outcome did not differ significantly for the comparison of the DAF and DA arms. A survival advantage of the DAC arm over the DA arm was observed among patients age 50 years or older (P = .005), those with initial leukocyte count above 50 × 10(9)/L (P = .03), and those with unfavorable karyotype (P = .03). DAF revealed a significant advantage over DA in patients with adverse karyotype (P = .02).


The addition of cladribine to the standard induction regimen is associated with increased rate of complete remission and improved survival of adult patients with AML.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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