Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun;35(11):1317-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05093.x. Epub 2012 Apr 16.

Renal tubular dysfunction during long-term adefovir or tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B.

Author information

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.



Adefovir and tenofovir are nucleotide analogues used as long-term therapy of chronic hepatitis B. Side effects are few, but prolonged and high-dose therapy has been associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction (RTD).


To assess the incidence of RTD during long-term nucleotide therapy of chronic hepatitis B.


A total of 51 patients being treated at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health were studied. Diagnosis of RTD required de novo appearance of at least three of five features: hypophosphataemia, hypouricaemia, serum creatinine elevation, proteinuria or glucosuria.


Among 51 patients treated for 1-10 (mean 7.4) years with adefovir (n = 42), tenofovir (n = 4) or adefovir followed by tenofovir (n = 5), 7 (14%) developed RTD. Time to onset ranged from 22 to 94 (mean 49) months with an estimated 10-year cumulative rate of 15%. All seven had low urinary percent maximal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (<82%). Patients with RTD were older (58 vs. 44 years; P = 0.01) and had lower baseline glomerular filtration rates (82 vs. 97 cc/min; P = 0.08) compared to those without; but did not differ in other features. Six patients with RTD were switched to entecavir, all subsequently had improvements in serum phosphate (2.0-3.0 mg/dL), creatinine (1.6-1.1 mg/dL), uric acid (2.7-3.8 mg/dL) and proteinuria.


Renal tubular dysfunction develops in 15% of patients treated with adefovir or tenofovir for 2-9 years and is partially reversible with change to other antivirals. Monitoring for serum phosphate, creatinine and urinalysis is prudent during long-term adefovir and tenofovir therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center