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Ann Rehabil Med. 2011 Aug;35(4):491-8. doi: 10.5535/arm.2011.35.4.491. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Relationship between Physical Examinations and Two-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Findings in Children with Intoeing Gait.

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1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pusan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735, Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the validity of physical examinations by assessment of correlation between physical examinations and CT measurements in children with intoeing gait and the causes of intoeing gait by age using CT measurements.

METHOD:

Twenty-six children with intoeing gait participated in this study. The internal and external hip rotation, thigh-foot angle and transmalleolar angle were measured. In addition, femoral anteversion and tibial torsion of the subjects were assessed using a CT scan. The measurements of torsional angles were performed twice by two raters. The correlation coefficients between physical examinations and CT measurements were calculated using Pearson correlation. The data was analyzed statistically using SPSS v12.0.

RESULTS:

The correlation coefficients between physical examinations and CT measurements were not high. Before 5 years of age, intoeing gait was caused by femoral anteversion in 17.86%, tibial torsion in 32.29% and the combination of causes in 35.71% of cases. After 6 years of age, the contributions changed to 29.17%, 8.33% and 45.83%, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Before 5 years of age, the common cause of an intoeing gait was tibial torsion, whereas after 6 years of age it was femoral anteversion. Regardless of age, the most common cause of intoeing gait was a combination of causes. This study shows poor correlation between physical examinations and CT. Therefore, it is limiting to use physical examination only for evaluating the cause of intoeing gait in clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

Femoral anteversion; Hip internal rotation; Intoeing gait; Thigh foot angle; Tibial torsion

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