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Mt Sinai J Med. 2012 Mar-Apr;79(2):223-31. doi: 10.1002/msj.21307.

Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Mount Sinai Liver Cancer Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.


Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and its incidence is rising in Western countries. Liver resection is the treatment of choice in noncirrhotic patients and in cirrhotic patients with well-preserved liver function. Postresection survival rates are in the range of 41-74% at 5 years. Predictors of recurrence include tumor grade, vascular invasion, tumor size, number of tumors, presence of satellites, alpha-fetoprotein level, transfusion, and positive surgical margin. Second hepatic resection for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma is applicable in about 15% of patients with recurrence. Liver transplantation has become an important element of the therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver transplantation provides excellent outcomes applying the Milan criteria with 5-year survival rates of 70% and low recurrence rates. Intention-to-treat analysis has shown that wide extended indications lead to 25% 5-year survival rates. Expansion of indications beyond the Milan Criteria and use of bridging/downstaging procedures, to convert intermediate advanced stages of hepatocellular cancer within the Milan criteria limits, are counterbalanced by graft shortage and increasing use of marginal donors. Living donor transplantation is an alternative that can eliminate the waiting time and the attendant risk of drop-out.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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