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MBio. 2012 Apr 3;3(2). pii: e00291-11. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00291-11. Print 2012.

A new family of membrane electron transporters and its substrates, including a new cell envelope peroxiredoxin, reveal a broadened reductive capacity of the oxidative bacterial cell envelope.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

The Escherichia coli membrane protein DsbD functions as an electron hub that dispatches electrons received from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin system to periplasmic oxidoreductases involved in protein disulfide isomerization, cytochrome c biogenesis, and sulfenic acid reduction. Here, we describe a new class of DsbD proteins, named ScsB, whose members are found in proteobacteria and Chlamydia. ScsB has a domain organization similar to that of DsbD, but its amino-terminal domain differs significantly. In DsbD, this domain directly interacts with substrates to reduce them, which suggests that ScsB acts on a different array of substrates. Using Caulobacter crescentus as a model organism, we searched for the substrates of ScsB. We discovered that ScsB provides electrons to the first peroxide reduction pathway identified in the bacterial cell envelope. The reduction pathway comprises a thioredoxin-like protein, TlpA, and a peroxiredoxin, PprX. We show that PprX is a thiol-dependent peroxidase that efficiently reduces both hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. Moreover, we identified two additional proteins that depend on ScsB for reduction, a peroxiredoxin-like protein, PrxL, and a novel protein disulfide isomerase, ScsC. Altogether, our results reveal that the array of proteins involved in reductive pathways in the oxidative cell envelope is significantly broader than was previously thought. Moreover, the identification of a new periplasmic peroxiredoxin indicates that in some bacteria, it is important to directly scavenge peroxides in the cell envelope even before they reach the cytoplasm.

IMPORTANCE:

Peroxides are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cellular components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The presence of protection mechanisms against ROS is essential for cell survival. Bacteria express cytoplasmic catalases and thiol-dependent peroxidases to directly scavenge harmful peroxides. We report the identification of a peroxide reduction pathway active in the periplasm of Caulobacter crescentus, which reveals that, in some bacteria, it is important to directly scavenge peroxides in the cell envelope even before they reach the cytoplasm. The electrons required for peroxide reduction are delivered to this pathway by ScsB, a new type of membrane electron transporter. We also identified two additional likely ScsB substrates, including a novel protein disulfide isomerase. Our results reveal that the array of proteins involved in reductive pathways in the oxidative environment of the cell envelope is significantly broader than was previously thought.

PMID:
22493033
PMCID:
PMC3322552
DOI:
10.1128/mBio.00291-11
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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