Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Apr;86(4):566-72. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0370.

Using limes and synthetic psoralens to enhance solar disinfection of water (SODIS): a laboratory evaluation with norovirus, Escherichia coli, and MS2.

Author information

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


We investigated the use of psoralens and limes to enhance solar disinfection of water (SODIS) using an UV lamp and natural sunlight experiments. SODIS conditions were replicated using sunlight, 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, and tap water with Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage, and murine norovirus (MNV). Psoralens and lime acidity both interact synergistically with UV radiation to accelerate inactivation of microbes. Escherichia coli was ablated > 6.1 logs by SODIS + Lime Slurry and 5.6 logs by SODIS + Lime Juice in 30-minute solar exposures, compared with a 1.5 log reduction with SODIS alone (N = 3; P < 0.001). MS2 was inactivated > 3.9 logs by SODIS + Lime Slurry, 1.9 logs by SODIS + Lime Juice, and 1.4 logs by SODIS in 2.5-hour solar exposures (N = 3; P < 0.05). MNV was resistant to SODIS, with < 2 log reductions after 6 hours. Efficacy of SODIS against human norovirus should be investigated further.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ingenta plc Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center