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Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Apr;25(2):264-96. doi: 10.1128/CMR.05013-11.

Epidemiology of and diagnostic strategies for toxoplasmosis.

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1
Service de Parasitologie, Faculté de Médecine et Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes, France. florence.robert-gangneux@univ-rennes1.fr

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  • Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Jul;25(3):583.

Abstract

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies.

PMID:
22491772
PMCID:
PMC3346298
DOI:
10.1128/CMR.05013-11
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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