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Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3618-35. doi: 10.3390/ijms13033618. Epub 2012 Mar 19.

The intriguing life of autophagosomes.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton campus, Victoria 3800, Australia; E-Mails: Dalibor.Mijaljica@monash.edu (D.M.); Mark.Prescott@monash.edu (M.P.).

Abstract

Autophagosomes are double-membrane vesicles characteristic of macroautophagy, a degradative pathway for cytoplasmic material and organelles terminating in the lysosomal or vacuole compartment for mammals and yeast, respectively. This highly dynamic, multi-step process requires significant membrane reorganization events at different stages of the macroautophagic process. Such events include exchange and flow of lipids and proteins between membranes and vesicles (e.g., during initiation and growth of the phagophore), vesicular positioning and trafficking within the cell (e.g., autophagosome location and movement) and fusion of autophagosomes with the boundary membranes of the degradative compartment. Here, we review current knowledge on the contribution of different organelles to the formation of autophagosomes, their trafficking and fate within the cell. We will consider some of the unresolved questions related to the molecular mechanisms that regulate the "life and death" of the autophagosome.

KEYWORDS:

autophagosome; degradation; lysosome; macroautophagy; mammals; membrane; organelle; yeast

PMID:
22489171
PMCID:
PMC3317731
DOI:
10.3390/ijms13033618
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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