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J Investig Clin Dent. 2012 Aug;3(3):176-81. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-1626.2012.00120.x. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

Markers of potential malignancy in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis.

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Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.



To examine the presence of markers associated with malignancy, including p53, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, murine double minutes-2, and others, in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis.


Immunohistochemical methods were used to examine the expression of p53, murine double minutes-2, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, metallothionein, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in 42 chronic hyperplastic candidiasis lesions and 11 non-infected control tissues. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling was used to examine apoptosis, which was correlated with p53 expression. These markers were measured in lesions of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis that did not show any epithelial dysplasia or histological signs of malignancy.


p53 scores were higher in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis than in controls (P = 0.0046). Murine double-minutes 2 levels were not elevated. p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A was increased in parabasal (P < 0.0001) and basal epithelial cells. Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis lesions showed a similar basal/parabasal metallothionein staining pattern to that seen in normal squamous epithelium. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased (P = 0.0007), as was apoptosis (P = 0.0033).


Increased p53 in oral chronic hyperplastic candidiasis suggests an increased potential for malignant change in the epithelium, above that of normal tissues. Further functional investigation is required, as well as clinical follow-up studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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