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Urol Clin North Am. 2012 May;39(2):233-49, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2012.02.002. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Defining an individualized treatment strategy for metastatic renal cancer.

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Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.


Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has evolved dramatically within the past 10 years with the advent of therapy targeting the angiogenesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. These therapies rapidly supplanted immunotherapy as a first-line systemic treatment option. Response rates, however, continue to vary, largely due to mRCC's clinical and molecular heterogeneity. This article reviews current understanding of mRCC biology and available treatments, discusses novel biomarkers that improve prognostication and may be able to predict response, and integrates available literature on surgical and systemic therapies into an individualized strategy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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