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Nano Lett. 2012 May 9;12(5):2318-23. doi: 10.1021/nl300206e. Epub 2012 Apr 11.

Porous doped silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with long cycle life.

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Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.


Porous silicon nanowires have been well studied for various applications; however, there are only very limited reports on porous silicon nanowires used for energy storage. Here, we report both experimental and theoretical studies of porous doped silicon nanowires synthesized by direct etching of boron-doped silicon wafers. When using alginate as a binder, porous silicon nanowires exhibited superior electrochemical performance and long cycle life as anode material in a lithium ion battery. Even after 250 cycles, the capacity remains stable above 2000, 1600, and 1100 mAh/g at current rates of 2, 4, and 18 A/g, respectively, demonstrating high structure stability due to the high porosity and electron conductivity of the porous silicon nanowires. A mathematic model coupling the lithium ion diffusion and the strain induced by lithium intercalation was employed to study the effect of porosity and pore size on the structure stability. Simulation shows silicon with high porosity and large pore size help to stabilize the structure during charge/discharge cycles.


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