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Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jul;120(7):978-83. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104307. Epub 2012 Apr 6.

Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and implantation failure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

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Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.



Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins found in numerous consumer products. In experimental animals, BPA increases embryo implantation failure and reduces litter size.


We evaluated the association of urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).


We used online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure urinary BPA concentrations in 137 women in a prospective cohort study among women undergoing IVF at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center in Boston, Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure, accounting for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. Implantation failure was defined as a negative serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin test (β-hCG < 6 IU/L) 17 days after egg retrieval.


Among 137 women undergoing 180 IVF cycles, urinary BPA concentrations had a geometric mean (SD) of 1.53 (2.22) µg/L. Overall, 42% (n = 75) of the IVF cycles resulted in implantation failure. In adjusted models, there was an increased odds of implantation failure with higher quartiles of urinary BPA concentrations {odds ratio (OR) 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 2.95}, 1.60 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.78), and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.84, 5.31) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (p-trend = 0.06).


There was a positive linear dose-response association between BPA urinary concentrations and implantation failure.

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