Send to

Choose Destination
Physiol Behav. 2012 Jun 25;106(4):506-14. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.03.028. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Central kappa opioid receptors modulate salt appetite in rats.

Author information

Department of Biological Sciences, State University of Southwest Bahia, 45200-000, Jequié, Bahia, Brazil.


The role of the central opioid system in the control of water and salt intake is complex, with both stimulatory and inhibitory effects having been observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation of the central κ-opioid receptors in the control of salt appetite. Male Wistar rats were submitted to two different experimental protocols: sodium deficit produced by the diuretic, furosemide, and brain angiotensinergic stimulation in rats under normal sodium balance. Lateral ventricle (LV) injections of Nor-binaltorphimine (Nor-BNI) at different doses (5, 10 and 20 nmol) inhibited hypertonic saline solution (1.5%) intake in sodium-depleted rats. The salt appetite induced by an LV injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) (10 ng) was also blocked by Nor-BNI injections into the LV, while no significant change was observed in water intake. Furthermore, the decrease in salt intake seems not to have been due to a general inhibition of locomotor activity or to any change in palatability, since central administration of Nor-BNI failed to modify the intake of a 0.1% saccharin solution when the animals were submitted to a "dessert test" or to induce any significant locomotor deficit in the open-field test. Also the central administration of Nor-BNI was unable to modify blood pressure in sodium-depleted animals. The present results suggest that activation of endogenous κ-opioid receptors modulates salt appetite induced by sodium depletion and by central angiotensinergic stimulation in rats.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center