Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Annu Rev Biochem. 2012;81:507-32. doi: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060109-094246. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

Regulation of glucose transporter translocation in health and diabetes.

Author information

1
Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8020, USA. jonathan.bogan@yale.edu

Abstract

To enhance glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells, insulin stimulates the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular membranes to the cell surface. This response requires the intersection of insulin signaling and vesicle trafficking pathways, and it is compromised in the setting of overnutrition to cause insulin resistance. Insulin signals through AS160/Tbc1D4 and Tbc1D1 to modulate Rab GTPases and through the Rho GTPase TC10α to act on other targets. In unstimulated cells, GLUT4 is incorporated into specialized storage vesicles containing IRAP, LRP1, sortilin, and VAMP2, which are sequestered by TUG, Ubc9, and other proteins. Insulin mobilizes these vesicles directly to the plasma membrane, and it modulates the trafficking itinerary so that cargo recycles from endosomes during ongoing insulin exposure. Knowledge of how signaling and trafficking pathways are coordinated will be essential to understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and may also inform a wide range of other physiologies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center