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Am J Ther. 2012 Jul;19(4):281-6. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181e9b655.

Application of botulinum toxin to clinical therapy: advances and cautions.

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Florida Ophthalmic Institute, Gainesville, FL 32605, USA.


The therapeutic use of botulinum toxin Type A has followed a novel and unanticipated pathway of applications, from its initial application by Scott to paralyze the extraocular muscles of the eyes to correct strabismus. In the late 1970s, Scott formed a company, called Oculinum Inc, to make botulinum toxin Type A available for this ophthalmic application. From this modest and limited beginning, it has found use for treatment of a plethora of cosmetic, neuromuscular, and skeletal disabilities, including cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, and temporary improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe glabellar lines. Botulinum toxin Type A is now being used as therapy in voiding disorders, migraine and tension-type headache, writer's cramp, and laryngeal muscle hyperactivity syndromes. It has reduced the spasm and pain associated with perianal fissures. It has found application in the reduction of glandular function in severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis and sialorrhea. Additional applications are being studied in the area of pain management based on its apparent ability to inhibit neuropeptide release from nociceptors.

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