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Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Aug;42(1):56-65. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2011.12.005. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Disease-specific patient reported outcome tools for systemic lupus erythematosus.

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  • 1Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA.



Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can significantly affect both health and non-health-related quality of life (HRQOL and non-HRQOL). However, of the existent published patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools, none were developed from US patients, an ethnically diverse population. Furthermore, these tools do not address men with SLE or assess non-HRQOL issues. Herein, we present the development and validation of the Lupus Patient-Reported Outcome tool (LupusPRO) and discuss its clinical utility and research value compared with other PRO tools currently available for SLE.


Beginning with a conceptual framework, items for LupusPRO were generated using feedback from women and men with SLE. The tool underwent iterations based on patient feedback and clinimetric and psychometric analyses. Validity (content, construct, and criterion) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) for the 44-item LupusPRO tool are presented.


Consistent with the conceptual framework, items were identified that were related to HRQOL and non-HRQOL constructs. HRQOL domains included (1) lupus symptoms; (2) physical health (physical function, role physical); (3) pain-vitality; (4) emotional health (emotional function and role emotional); (5) body image; (6) cognition; (7) procreation; and (8) lupus medications. Non-HRQOL domains were (1) available social support and coping; (2) desires-goals; and (3) satisfaction with medical care. Internal consistency reliability (0.68-0.94), test-retest reliability (0.55-0.92), content, construct (r > 0.50 with SF-36), and criterion (r > -0.35 with disease activity) validity were fair to good.


LupusPRO is a valid and reliable disease-targeted patient-reported health outcome tool that is generalizable to SLE patients in the United States of varied ethnic backgrounds and either gender.

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