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J Assoc Physicians India. 2011 Oct;59:644-8.

Association of depression with complications of type 2 diabetes--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES- 102).

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  • 1Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for Non Communicable Diseases Prevention & Control IDF Centre of Education, Gopalapuram, Chennai, India.



The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between depression and diabetic complications among urban south Indian type 2 diabetic subjects [T2DM].


T2DM subjects [n = 847] were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES], a population based study in Chennai (formerly Madras) in South India. A previously validated depression questionnaire [PHQ-12 item] was administered. Four field stereo retinal colour photography was done and diabetic retinopathy [DR] was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading system. Neuropathy was diagnosed if the vibratory perception threshold of the right great toe, measured by biothesiometry, was > or = 20. Nephropathy was diagnosed if urinary albumin excretion was > or = 300 microg/mg creatinine. Peripheral vascular disease [PVD] was diagnosed if an ankle-brachial index was < 0.9. Coronary artery disease [CAD] was diagnosed based on a past history of documented myocardial infarction and/or electrocardiographic evidence of Q wave and/or ST segment changes.


Of the 847 T2DM studied, 198 (23.4%) were found have depression. The prevalence of depression was significantly higher among diabetic subjects with DR (35.0% vs 21.1%, p < 0.001), neuropathy (28.4% vs 15.9%, p = 0.023), nephropathy (35.6% vs 24.5%, p = 0.04) and PVD (48.0% vs 27.4%, p < 0.001) as compared to subjects without these complications. DR, neuropathy, nephropathy, and PVD were associated with depression even after adjusting for age, gender, duration of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin. DR (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.19, Confidence interval [CI]:1.45-3.51, p < 0.001) was associated with depression even after adjusting for neuropathy and nephropathy. There was also a significant association between depression and neuropathy, after adjusting for retinopathy and nephropathy (OR = 2.07, CI: 1.41-3.04, p < 0.001). There was a significant association of depression with nephropathy but this was lost (OR = 1.71, CI: 0.87-3.35, p = 0.119) after adjustment for retinopathy. PVD (OR = 3.52, CI: 1.94-6.40, p < 0.001) remained significantly associated with depression even after adjusting for CAD. However, there was no significant association of depression with CAD (OR = 0.73, CI: 0.42 -1.27, p = 0.264).


Among Asian Indians, the prevalence of depression is higher in T2DM subjects with retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and PVD compared to those without the respective complications.

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