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World J Orthop. 2011 Mar 18;2(3):25-30. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v2.i3.25.

Interactions between the immune system and bone.

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Patrizia D'Amelio, Giorgia Fornelli, Giovanni Carlo Isaia, Department of Surgical and Medical Disciplines, Section of Gerontology, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy.


The relationship between the immune system, estrogen deficiency and bone loss is an intriguing and, as yet, unexplained challenge of the past two decades. Here we summarize the evidence that links immune cells, inflammation, cytokine production and osteoclast formation and activity with particular regard to humans.


Cytokines; Immune system; Menopause; Osteoclast; Osteoporosis; T cells

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