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Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:438238. doi: 10.1155/2012/438238. Epub 2012 Mar 18.

TXNIP links innate host defense mechanisms to oxidative stress and inflammation in retinal Muller glia under chronic hyperglycemia: implications for diabetic retinopathy.

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Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.


Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP) mediates retinal inflammation, gliosis, and apoptosis in experimental diabetes. Here, we investigate the temporal response of Muller glia to high glucose (HG) and TXNIP expression using a rat Muller cell line (rMC1) in culture. We examined if HG-induced TXNIP expression evokes host defense mechanisms in rMC1 in response to metabolic abnormalities. HG causes sustained up-regulation of TXNIP (2 h to 5 days), ROS generation, ATP depletion, ER stress, and inflammation. Various cellular defense mechanisms are activated by HG: (i) NLRP3 inflammasome, (ii) ER stress response (sXBP1), (iii) hypoxic-like HIF-1α induction, (iv) autophagy/mitophagy, and (v) apoptosis. We also found in vivo that streptozocin-induced diabetic rats have higher retinal TXNIP and innate immune response gene expression than normal rats. Knock down of TXNIP by intravitreal siRNA reduces inflammation (IL-1β) and gliosis (GFAP) in the diabetic retina. TXNIP ablation in vitro prevents ROS generation, restores ATP level and autophagic LC3B induction in rMC1. Thus, our results show that HG sustains TXNIP up-regulation in Muller glia and evokes a program of cellular defense/survival mechanisms that ultimately lead to oxidative stress, ER stress/inflammation, autophagy and apoptosis. TXNIP is a potential target to ameliorate blinding ocular complications of diabetic retinopathy.

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