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Skull Base. 2011 Jul;21(4):249-54. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1280679.

Do concomitant cranium and axis injuries predict worse outcome? A trauma database quantitative analysis.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana.


We performed a trauma database analysis to identify the effect of concomitant cranial injuries on outcome in patients with fractures of the axis. We identified patients with axis fractures over a 14-year period. A binary outcome measure was used. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. There were 259 cases with axis fractures. Closed head injury was noted in 57% and skull base trauma in 14%. Death occurred in 17 cases (6%). Seventy-two percent had good outcome. Presence of abnormal computed tomography head findings, skull base fractures, and visceral injury was significantly associated with poor outcome. Skull base injury in association with fractures of the axis is a significant independent predictor of worse outcomes, irrespective of the severity of the head injury. We propose that presence of concomitant cranial and upper vertebral injuries require careful evaluation in view of the associated poor prognosis.


Cervical spine; axis fractures; craniovertebral junction; skull base; trauma database

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