Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012 May;28(5):400-8. doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.662547. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing estradiol: focus on estradiol valerate/dienogest.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ospedale S. Chiara, Pisa, Italy. ffruzzi@tin.it

Abstract

Natural estrogens such as estradiol (E(2)) or its valerate ester (E(2)V) offer an alternative to ethinyl estradiol (EE). E(2)-containing combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have demonstrated sufficient ovulation inhibition and acceptable contraceptive efficacy. However, earlier formulations were generally associated with unacceptable bleeding profiles. Two E(2)V-containing preparations have been approved to date for contraceptive use: E(2)V/cyproterone acetate (CPA) (Femilar(®); only approved in Finland and only in women >40 years or women aged 35-40 years in whom a COC containing EE is not appropriate) and E(2)V/dienogest (DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)). The objective of the current review is to provide an overview of the development of COCs containing natural estrogen, highlighting past issues and challenges faced by earlier formulations, as well as the current status and future directions. The majority of information to date pertains to the development of E(2)V/DNG.

PMID:
22468839
PMCID:
PMC3399636
DOI:
10.3109/09513590.2012.662547
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center