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J Virol Methods. 2012 Jun;182(1-2):93-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.03.020. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Fisetin and rutin as 3C protease inhibitors of enterovirus A71.

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Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.


Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes severe complications: encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and death. No effective drug has been approved for clinical use. This study investigated the antiviral effects of flavonoids against EV-A71. An in vitro inhibitor screening assay using recombinant EV-A71 3C protease (3Cpro) demonstrated fisetin and rutin inhibiting 3Cpro enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay with an EV-A71 3Cpro cleavage motif probe also confirmed that fisetin and rutin inhibited the replication of EV-A71 in cells. A virus replication assay indicated that fisetin and rutin reduced significantly the EV-A71-induced cytopathic effect and viral plaque titers in RD cells culture. The IC(50) values of plaque reduction against EV-A71 were 85 μM for fisetin and 110 μM for rutin. Therapeutic indices (CC50/IC50 of plaque reduction assays) of fisetin and rutin exceeded 10. The study suggests that fisetin and rutin inhibit the replication of EV-A71.

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